Перечислим основные английские союзы:

And — и; а

Bob and Pete live in Toronto.

Боб и Пит живут в Торонто.

This is Jack and that is John.

Это Джек, а это Джон.

But — но

He wants to buy a new house, but he has no money.

Он хочет купить новый дом, но у него нет денег.

Or — или

Do you have any brothers or sisters?

У вас есть братья или сёстры?

When — когда

When she was young, she was living in California.

Когда она была молодой, она жила в Калифорнии.

While — в то время как

While I was washing the dishes, you were watching hockey.

В то время как я мыла посуду, ты смотрел хоккей.

Before — перед тем как; до того как

Before you sit down, can you pass me the mustard?

Перед тем как ты сядешь, ты не мог бы передать мне горчицу?

After — после того как

Call me after you arrive in Vancouver.

Позвони мне после того как прибудешь в Ванкувер.

Since — 1) с тех пор как

Since we got home, it has rained every day.

С тех пор как мы приехали домой, каждый день идёт дождь.

2) потому что; так как; поскольку

She can’t go to the party since she is ill.

Она не может пойти на вечеринку, потому что она болеет.

Till; until — пока; до тех пор пока; пока не; до тех пор пока не

Wait until they come.

Подождите, пока они не придут.

Because — потому что

Everyone likes him because he is kind. Он всем нравится, потому что он добрый.

To — чтобы

To get there you need to go to ‘Smolenskaya’ metro station.

Чтобы попасть туда, вам нужно ехать до станции метро «Смоленская».

In order that — чтобы; для того, чтобы

People on bikes should wear orange coats in order that drivers can see them in the dark.

Велосипедисты должны быть одеты в оранжевые куртки, чтобы водители могли видеть их в темноте.

In order to — чтобы; для того, чтобы

He ran fast in order to catch the bus.

Он быстро побежал, чтобы успеть на автобус.

So as to — чтобы; с тем, чтобы

We ran to the station so as not to miss the train.

Мы побежали на станцию, чтобы не опоздать на поезд.

If — 1) если

If the weather is good, they’ll go to the dacha.

Если будет хорошая погода, они поедут на дачу.

2) ли

I wonder if she has ever been to Italy?

Интересно, была ли она когда-нибудь в Италии?

As if — как будто

She looks as if she is going to cry.

У неё такой вид, как будто она сейчас заплачет.

Whether — ли

He doesn’t know whether it is true.

Он не знает, правда ли это.

Though — хотя

Though he has little money, he always gives her expensive presents.

Хотя у него мало денег, он всегда дарит ей дорогие подарки.

Than — чем

I know Manchester better than Liverpool.

Я знаю Манчестер лучше, чем Ливерпуль.

As^ as^ — так же^, как^

She is as beautiful as her sister.

Она так же красива, как её сестра.

Not so^ as^ — не так^, как^

He is not so clever as his brother.

Он не так умён, как его брат.

Not only^ but also^ — не только, но и^

The film was not only long, but it was also boring.

Фильм был не только длинный, но и скучный.

Упражнение 218

Переведите предложения на английский язык.

1. Это Боб, а это Джим. 2. У неё есть братья или сёстры? 3. Когда он был молодым, он жил в Санкт-Петербурге. 3. В то время, как она мыла посуду, он смотрел баскетбол. 5. Перед тем как вы сядете, вы не могли бы передать мне соль? 6. Позвони мне после того как прибудешь в Нью-Йорк. 7. С тех пор как я приехал домой, каждый день идёт снег. 8. Подожди, пока она не придёт. 9. Чтобы попасть туда, вам нужно ехать до станции метро «Сокол». 10. Если будет хорошая погода, мы поедем на дачу. 11. Интересно, он когда-нибудь был в Америке? 12. Она знает французский язык лучше, чем английский.

Приложения

Приложение 1

Грамматические таблицы

Формы времён английского глагола (таблицы спряжения)

INDEFINITE

The Present Indefinite Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I work

You work

He (she, it) works

Do I work?

Do you work?

Does he (she, it) work?

We work

They work

Do we work?

Do they work?

I do not (don’t) work You do not (don’t) work He (she, it) does not (doesn’t) work

We do not (don’t) work They do not (don’t) work

The Past Indefinite Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I worked

You worked

He (she, it) worked

We worked

They worked

Did I work?

Did you work?

Did he (she, it) work?

Did we work?

Did they work?

I did not (didn’t) work You did not (didn’t) work He (she, it) did not (didn’t) work

We did not (didn’t) work They did not (didn’t) work

The Future Indefinite Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I will (I’ll) work

You will (you’ll) work He will (he’ll), she will (she’ll), it will (it’ll) work We will (we’ll) work They will (they’ll) work

Will I work?

Will you work?

Will he (she, it) work?

Will we work?

Will they work?

I will not (won’t) work You will not (won’t) work He (she, it) will not (won’t) work

We will not (won’t) work They will not (won’t) work

CONTINUOUS

The Present Continuous Tense[XXXV]

Утверждение

I am (I’m) working You are (you’re) working He is (he’s), she is (she’s), it is (it’s) working

We are (we’re) working They are (they’re) working

Вопрос

Am I working?

Are you working?

Is he (she, it) working?

Are we working?

Are they working?

Отрицание

I am not (I’m not) working You are not (aren’t) working He (she, it) is not (isn’t) working

We are not (aren’t) working They are not (aren’t) working

The Past Continuous Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

Was I working?

Were you working?

I was not (wasn’t) working You were not (weren’t) working

He (she, it) was working Was he (she, it) working? He (she, it) was not (wasn’t)

We were working They were working

Were we working?

Were they working?

Working

We were not (weren’t) working They were not (weren’t) working

Форма the Present Continuous Tense может использоваться также для выражения бу-

1

Дущего времени.

The Future Continuous Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I will (I’ll) be working

Will I be working?

You will (you’ll) be work­ing

He will (he’ll), she will

(she’ll), it will (it’ll) be working

Will you be working?

I will not (won’t) be work­ing

You will not (won’t) be working

Will he (she, it) be working? He (she, it) will not (won’t) be working

We will (we’ll) be working Will we be working?

They will (they’ll) be working

Will they be working?

We will not (won’t) be working

They will not (won’t) be working

The Present Perfect Tense

PERFECT

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I have (I’ve) worked

Have I worked?

You have (you’ve) worked

He has (he’s), she has (she’s), it has (it’s) worked

We have (we’ve) worked

Have you worked?

Has he (she, it) worked?

I have not (haven’t) worked

You have not (haven’t) worked

He (she, it) has not (hasn’t) worked

Have we worked?

They have (they’ve) worked

Have they worked?

We have not (haven’t) worked

They have not (haven’t) worked

The Past Perfect Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I had worked

You had worked

Had I worked?

Had you worked?

He (she, it) had worked

Had he (she, it) worked?

We had worked

Had we worked?

They had worked

Had they worked?

I had not (hadn’t) worked You had not (hadn’t) worked

He (she, it) had not (hadn’t) worked We had not (hadn’t) worked

They had not (hadn’t) worked

The Future Perfect Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I will (I’ll) have worked

Will I have worked?

You will (you’ll) have worked

He will (he’ll), she will (she’ll), it will (it’ll) have worked

We will (we’ll) have worked

They will (they’ll) have worked

Will you have worked?

Will he (she, it) have worked?

Will we have worked?

Will they have worked?

I will not (won’t) have worked

You will not (won’t) have worked

He, she, it will not (won’t) have worked

We will not (won’t) have worked

They will not (won’t) have worked

PERFECT CONTINUOUS[XXXVI]

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I have (I’ve) been working

You have (you’ve) been working

He has (he’s), she has (she’s), it has (it’s) been working

We have (we’ve) been working

They have (they’ve) been working

Have you been working?

Have they been working?

Have I been working?

Has he (she, it) been working?

I have not (haven’t) been working

You have not (haven’t) been working

He, she, it has not (hasn’t) been working

Have we been working?

We have not (haven’t) been working They have not (haven’t) been working

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I had been working

You had been working

He (she, it) had been working

We had been working

They had been working

Had I been working?

Had you been working?

Had he (she, it) been working

Had we been working?

Had they been working?

I had not (hadn’t) been working

You had not (hadn’t) been working

He (she, it) had not (hadn’t) been working We had not (hadn’t) been working They had not (hadn’t) been working

1

Perfect со значением Continuous.

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I will (I’ll) have been working

You will (you’ll) have been working

He will (he’ll), she will (she’ll), it will (it’ll) have been working

We will (we’ll) have been working

They will (they’ll) have been working

Will I have been work­ing?

Will you have been working?

Will he (she, it) have been working?

Will we have been work — We will not (won’t) have ing? been working

Will they have been They will not (won’t)

Working? have been working

I will not (won’t) have been working

You will not (won’t) have been working

He (she, it) will not (won’t) have been work­ing

Форма будущего времени, образуемая сочетанием Be going + инфинитив

Утверждение

Вопрос

Отрицание

I am (I’m) going to work

You are (you’re) going to work

He is (he’s), she is (she’s), it is (it’s) going to work We are (we’re) going to work

They are (they’re) going to work

Am I going to work?

Are you going to work?

Is he (she, it) going to work?

Are we going to work?

Are they going to work?

I am not (I’m not) going to work

You are not (aren’t) go­ing to work

He (she, it) is not (isn’t) going to work

We are not (aren’t) go­ing to work

They are not (aren’t) go­ing to work

«Будущее в прошедшем» (Future in the Past)1

Утверждение

Отрицание

I said I would work.

I said you would work.

I said he (she, it) would work.

I said we would work.

I said they would work.

I said I would not (wouldn’t) work.

I said you would not (wouldn’t) work.

I said he (she, it) would not (wouldn’t) work.

I said we would not (wouldn’t) work.

I said they would not (wouldn’t) work.

Это форма, которая употребляется только в дополни

1 «Будущее в прошедшем» тельных придаточных предложениях, когда в главном предложении употребляется глагол в форме прошедшего времени.

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