At the age of

At the airport

At the beginning of

At breakfast/lunch etc

At the bottom of

At the bus stop

At church

At the corner/on the corner

At all costs

At the crossroads

At dawn

At one’s desk

At the door

At the end of

At fault

At first

At first hand

At first sight

At a glance

At a guess

At hand

At heart

At home

At/in a hotel

At… km per hour

At last

At the latest

At least

At liberty

At a loss

At the match

At midnight

At the moment

At most

At night

At noon

At once

At peace/war

At present

At a profit

At the prospect

At random

At any rate

At one’s request

At the same time

At school

At sea

At the seaside

At short notice

At/in the station

At sunset

At the table

At the time

At times

At the top of (but: on top of)

At university

At the weekend

At work

At 4 Rose St.

By accident

By all accounts

By appointment

By the arm/hand

By birth

By bus/train/plane, etc (but: on

А / the bus; in a taxi / helicopter / plane)

By chance

By cheque

By correspondence

By day/night by degrees

By the dozen by far

By force by hand

By heart

By invitation by land/sea/air by law by luck

By marriage by means of by mistake

By nature

By now

By oneself

By phone

By post/airmail

By profession

By request

By (the/one’s) side

By sight

By surprise

By the time

By the way

By one’s watch

For ages

For breakfast

For certain

For a change

For ever

For fear (of)

For fun (= for amusement)

For good

For granted

For hire

For instance

For luck

For life

For love

For nothing

For once

For the rest of

For safe keeping

For one’s sake

For the sake of

For sale

For short

For the time being

For a walk

For a while

In action

In addition to

In advance (of)

In agreement (with)

In aid of

In all (all in all)

In answer to

In an armchair

In a good/bad temper

In bed

In a book

In brief

In any case

In cash

In the centre of

In charge (of)

In code

In colour

In comfort in common

In comparison with

In conclusion (to)

In (good/bad) condition

In confidence

In control (of)

In the country

In danger

In the dark

In debt

In demand

In detail

In difficulty

In the direction of

In doubt

In a… dress

In the end (= finally)

In exchange for

In existence

In fact

In fashion

In favour of

In flames

In the flesh

In one’s free time

In fun

In future

In general

In good time

In half in hand in haste in good/bad health in honour of in the hope of in hospital in a hotel in a hurry

In ink/pencil/pen in smb’s interest in length/width etc in all smb’s life in a line in the long run in love (with) in luxury

In the meantime in a mess

In the middle of

In a mirror

In a moment

In a good/bad mood

In the mood

In the morning

In the mountains

In need of

In the news in a newspaper

In the name of

In the nick of time

In the north/south

In a nutshell

In oils

In the open

In one’s opinion in orbit in order of/to in other words in pain in pairs in the park in particular in the past in person in pieces in place of in politics in pounds in practice in principle in prison

In private/public in all probability in progress in a queue in reality in return in the right/wrong in a row/rows in ruins in safety in season in secret

In self-defence

In short in sight (of) in the sky in some respects in stock in the streets in succession in the suburbs in the sun/shade in good/bad taste

In tears in theory in a tick in time in no time in touch in town in tune (with) in turn in two/half in uniform in use

In vain

In view of

In a loud/low voice

In a way (= in a manner)

In the way

In writing

In a word

Off air

Off colour

Off duty

Off limits

Off the map

Off the peg

Off the point

Off the record

Off the road

Off school/work

On account of

On a… morning

On the agenda

On the air

On approval

On arrival on average

On bail

On balance

On the beach

On behalf of

On one’s birthday

On board

On the border

On business

On call

On a campsite (at a campsite)

On the coast

On condition

On the contrary

On credit

On a(n) cruise / trip / tour

On (a…) day

On demand

On a diet

On the dole

On duty

On earth

On edge

On an expedition

On a farm

On fire

On the (4th) floor (of)

On the floor

On foot

On the one hand

On the other hand

On holiday

On horseback

On impulse

On the increase

On an island

On a journey

On one’s knees

On leave

On the left

On loan

On the market

On one’s mind

On that morning

On the move

On New Year’s Day

On the news

On order

On the outskirts

On one’s own on page… on parade on the pavement on the phone on a platform on principle on purpose on the radio/TV on the right on the river on sale on schedule on the screen on second thoughts on sight on the sofa on the street(s) on strike on good/bad terms on time on top of on the trail of on a trip on the way (to) on the whole out of breath out of character out of condition out of control out of danger out of date out of debt out of doors out of fashion out of focus out of hand out of luck out of order out of the ordinary out of place out of practice out of print out of the question out of reach out of season out of sight out of step out of stock out of tune out of turn out of use out of work under age under arrest under one’s breath under control under discussion under the impression under orders under pressure under repair under the weather

THE PASSIVE VOICE. СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ

Simple

Continuous

Perfect

Am / is / are + V

Am / is / are + being + V.

Have / has been + V.

Й Ф м ф £

Letters are written every day.

Письма пишут каждый день.

Letters are not written.

Are letters written every day?

The letter is being writ­ten now.

Письмо сейчас пишут. The letter isn’t being written.

Is the letter being writ­ten?

The letter has just been written.

Письмо только что на­писали.

The letter hasn’t been written.

Has the letter been written?

Was / were + V

Was / were being + V.

Had been + V.

§

CL,

The letter was written. Письмо было написано.

The letter wasn’t writ­ten.

Was the letter written?

The letter was being writ­ten.

Письмо писали.

The letter wasn’t being written.

Was the letter being written?

The letter had been writ­ten by 2.

Письмо было написано к двум.

The letter hadn’t been written.

Had the letter been writ­ten?

Will be + V.

Will have been + V.

The letter will be written. Письмо будет написано. The letter won’t be writ­ten.

Will the letter be writ­ten?

The letter will have been written by 2.

Письмо будет написано к двум.

The letter won’t have been written.

Will the letter have been written?

THE WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS. СПОСОБЫ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ ДЕЙСТВИЙ В БУДУЩЕМ

Form

Meaning

Example

Future

Simple

1. обещание, предложение

2. предсказание

3. мгновенное решение

I’ll give you a lift to work tomorrow. I think it will rain tomorrow.

I’ll call him right now.

Future Continuous

1. процесс в будущем

2.запланированное действие We’ll be having dinner from 5 to 7. I’ll be going to the football match tomorrow.

Future Perfect

Завершенное действие в буду­щем

We’ll have done it by 6.

Future Perfect Continuous

Продолженное действие, ко­торое завершится к какому-то моменту в будущем

1 will have been studying English for

2 years by this time next year.

Present Simple

1. действие согласно расписа­нию

2. после придаточных условия и времени (после if и when)

The train arrives at 7.

If it rains we’ll stay home.

When he comes I’ll tell him.

Present Continuous

Договоренность, запланиро­ванное действие

We are leaving for Moscow tonight.

To be going to

1. намерения

2. предсказания (большая степень уверенности, чем c Fu­ture Simple)

I’m going to become a lawyer after school.

He is very weak, he isn’t going to win.

Might

Возможность

He might become very rich one day.

To be to

1. договоренность, расписание

2. нечто неизбежное (= суж­дено)

They are to come at 10. He is to marry her.

Would

Вместо Will в косвенной речи

He said he would become a manager soon.

To be likely to

«скорее всего», «вероятно»

He is likely to pass his exam.

To be about to

«вот-вот»

The film is about to begin.

To be due to

Ожидаемое действие

When is the meeting due to start?

MODALS. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

Modal

Meaning

Example

CAN

1. физическая и умственная спо­собность

I can swim.

2. возможность

You can fall ill.

3. разрешение

4. просьба

5. в отрицаниях зя»)

Запрет («нель-

You can go home now.

Can I have some juice?

You can’t park here!

Modal

Meaning

Example

COULD*

1. физическая и умственная спо­собность в прошлом

2. возможность

3. просьба

He could read when he was 2. We could still win. Could you help me?

MAY

1. возможность

2. разрешение

I may become a doctor. You may go now.

MIGHT

1. возможность

I might come.

2. разрешение

Might I ask you a question?

3. упрек (+ Perfect Infinitive)

You might have come.

MUST

1. долженствование, исходящие от говорящего

2. в отрицаниях чем с can)

Запрет (строже,

You must do it right now. You mustn’t beat girls!

SHOULD/ OUGHT TO

1.совет(«следует», «стоит»)

You shouldn’t eat so many sweets.

2. моральное обязательство

Children ought to help their parents.

3.необходимость

4. возможность

We should be there in no time.

If anything should happen to me call the police.

5. упрек (+ Perfect Infinitive)

You should have called me.

NEED

Необходимость (как модальный только в отрицательных предло­жениях)

You needn’t do it right now.

SHALL

1. предложение

2. намерения

Shall we begin? He shall come.

WILL/ WOULD

1. желание, намерения

I will/would lend you some money.

2. просьбы, предложения

Will/would you help me?

3. в отрицаниях — нежелание (‘никак не’)

The door won’t/wouldn’t open.

SEMI-MODALS*. ПОЛУМОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ

HAVE TO

1. долженствование, вызванное обстоятельствами («приходится»)

2. в отрицаниях — отсутствие не­обходимости («не надо»)

1. договоренность (+ Perfect Infini­tive, если не состоялась)

I work hard as I have to keep my family.

You don’t have to get up so early.

BE TO

2. строгий приказ

3. в отрицаниях —

4. что-то неизбежное («суждено»)

5. инструкции

Строгий запрет

We are to meet at 5.

(We were to have met at 5 but we didn’t.)

You are to stay here.

You are not to do that.

He was to become a doctor.

What are we to do?

* Эти глаголы обладают модальным значением (долженствование и проч.), но в предложении функционируют как обычные глаголы, то есть в отрицаниях и вопросах используются вспомогательные глаголы, происходит изменение по временам.

MODALS OF DEDUCTION. МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ ПРЕДПОЛОЖЕНИЯ И ИХ ЭКВИВАЛЕНТЫ

Modal

Translation

Example

Time

MUST

Должно быть вероятно очевидно скорее всего

He Must Have written a book. Должно быть, он написал книгу.

Past (о совер­шившемся)

He Must Have been writing his book for a year.

Должно быть, он пишет книгу уже год.

Perfect mean­ing (начал в прошлом, до сих пор пишет)

He Must Be writing a book now. Должно быть, он сейчас пишет книгу. He Must Like writing books. Д. б., он любит писать книги.

Present (о на­стоящем)

He Is likely to write a book.

Future (о бу­дущем)

He Will probably write a book. Вероят­но, он напишет книгу.

Modal

Translation

Example

Time

MIGHT

CAN

Должно быть вероятно очевидно скорее всего

Вряд ли

Возможно может быть мо­жет

Неужели

Неужели

+ не

(+не)

+ не

He Must have failed to write a book. Должно быть, он не написал книгу.

He Isn’t likely To have been writing his book for a year.

Вряд ли он пишет книгу уже год.

He Isn’t likely To be writing a book.

Вряд ли он пишет книгу.

He Isn’t likely to be a writer. Вряд ли он писатель.

He Isn’t likely to write a book.

He Won’t probably write a book. Вряд Ли он напишет книгу.

He Might (not) Have written A book. Возможно, он (не) написал книгу.

He Might (not) Have been writing his book for a year.

Возможно, он пишет эту книгу уже год.

He Might (not) Be writing a book now. Возможно, он пишет книгу.

He Might (not) Like writing book. Возможно, он любит писать книги.

He Might (not) Write a book. Возмож­но, он напишет книгу.

Can he Have written a book? Неужели Он написал книгу?

Can he Have been writing the book for a year?

Неужели он пишет книгу уже год?

Can he Be writing a book now? Неуже­ли он сейчас пишет книгу? Can he Like writing books? Неужели Он любит писать книги?

Is he Really going to write a book? Неужели он напишет книгу?

Can he Have failed to write the book?

Неужели он не написал книгу?__________

Can it be that he isn’t writing a book? Isn’t he writing a book. Неужели он Не пишет книгу?

Can it be that he won’t write a book? Isn’t he going to write a book? Неуже­ли он не напишет книгу?

Past

Perfect meaning

Present

Future

Past

Perfect meaning

Present

Future

Past

Perfect meaning

Present

Future

Past

Present

Future

Modal

Translation

Example

Time

Не может быть вряд ли

Не может быть

+ не

He Can’t Have written a book. Не мо­жет быть, что он написал книгу.

He Can’t Have been writing His book for a year.

Не может быть, что он пишет книгу уже год.

He Can’t Be writing a book now.

Не может быть, что он пишет сейчас книгу.

He Can’t Like writing books.

Не может быть, что он любит писать книги.

He Isn’t likely to write a book. Вряд ли он напишет книгу.

He Can’t have failed to write a book.

Не может быть, что он не написал книгу.

It can’t be that he isn’t writing a book. Не может быть, что он не пишет книгу.

It can’t be that he won’t write a book.

Не может быть, что он не напишет книгу.

Past

Perfect meaning

Present

Future

Past

Present

Future

Notes:

1. Чтобы перевести предложения с «вероятно ^ не», «неужели не», «не может быть, что.^ не», относящиеся к прошлому, можно использовать не только глагол Fail, но и другие лексические средства: Вероятно, она не понравилась твоим роди­телям = Your parents must have Disliked her.

2. Когда в предложениях с модальными глаголами предположения, относящихся к настоящему времени, используются статичные глаголы (be, love, hate, belong, possess, etc.), эти глаголы используются просто в форме инфинитива без To: Не мо­жет быть, что она любит тебя = She can’t love you.

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