Placement Test

1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. b; 5. d; 6. d; 7. c; 8. c; 9. a; 10. c; 11. d; 12. c; 13. c; 14. c; 15. b; 16. a; 17. b; 18. d; 19. a; 20. c; 21. d; 22. a; 23. a; 24. b; 25. b; 26.

D; 27. c; 28. c; 29. b; 30. a; 31. a; 32. b; 33. d; 34. a; 35. d; 36. b; 37. b; 38.

D; 39. a; 40. b; 41. c; 42. b; 43. a; 44. b; 45. a; 46. d; 47. b; 48. a; 49. b; 50.

B; 51. b; 52. c; 53. b; 54. c; 55. b; 56. a; 57. a; 58. c; 59. d; 60. b; 61. a; 62.

B; 63. d; 64. a; 65. a; 66. d; 67. b; 68. c; 69. d; 70. c; 71. a; 72. b; 73. d; 74.

B; 75. c; 76. b; 77. c; 78. a; 79. d; 80. d; 81. b; 82. c; 83. d; 84. a; 85.c; 86. d; 87. a; 88. d; 89. b; 90. c; 91. c; 92. b; 93. a; 94. d; 95. c; 96. c; 97. b; 98. a; 99. c; 100. b.

Beginners’ 1

1. 1. is; 2. am; 3. am; 4. have; 5. are; 6. is; 7. is; 8. have; 9. are; 10. is;

11. has; 12. have.

2. 1. How are you? 2. What is your name? 3. How old are you? 4. Where are you from? 5. What is your home city? 6. What are you?/What do you do?

7. What is your telephone number?

4. 1. My; 2. I; 3. It; 4. He; 5. his; 6. They; 7. She; 8. her; 9. Their;

10. Our.

5. A) Football is his favourite sport. b) She is tall and slim with long fair hair. c) What is your job? d) I am not good at tennis. e) London is the capi­tal of Great Britain.

Not a job; 3. pen friend — not a not a feature of appearance; 5. your negative meaning.

6. 1. Moscow — not a country; 2. passenger

Relative; 4. outgoing pronoun; 6. foot — irregular noun; 7. boring

Not a personal

7. 1e; 2a; 3b; 4k; 5h; 6i; 7g; 8f; 9d; 10c; 11j.

9. 1. is; 2. to; 3. Where; 4. France; 5. about; 6. Italy; 7. job; 8. a; 9. at;

10. driving.

10. A) do you come; b) years old; c) you; d) are/sport; e) a; f) How do you do? — How do you do?/How are you?

I’m fine. g) teeth; h) twenty

Second; i) in Russia; j) interested.

Beginners’ 2

1. 1. is; 2. does ^ do; 3. is; 4. does ^ live; 5. has; 6. Is; 7. is; 8. works; 9. Do ^ have; 10. are; 11. go; 12. Does ^ teach; 13. doesn’t work; 14. go; 15. Do ^ meet; 16. am; 17. don’t have.

2. 1. Where do you live? 2. What do you do?/What are you?/What’s your job?/Where do you work? 3. How often do you go to work? 4. Do you like your job? 5. What do you do in your free time?

Hot; easy high; loud wrong; slow

4. Clean — dirty; cold — hot; easy — difficult; good

Bad; light — dark/

Heavy; low — high; loud — quiet; old — young; open — closed; poor — rich; right — wrong; slow — fast; small — big; tall — short; thin — thick; wet — dry.

5. 1. time — not material; 2. those — not a verb; 3. garage — not a room in the house; 4. car — not public transport; 5. washing-up — not a free-time activity.

6. 1. from; 2. in; 3. in; 4. to; 5. from; 6. to; 7. in; 8. at; 9. On; 10. in.

7. 1b; 2a; 3b; 4b; 5d; 6a; 7c.

Beginners’ 3

1. 1. am; 2. came; 3. love; 4. are; 5. went; 6. is; 7. walked; 8. have; 9. cooks;

10. invited; 11. enjoyed; 12. think.

2. 1. When were you born? 2. When did you go to school? 3. What did you do after school? 4. Are you married? 4. When did you get married?

5. What does your husband do? 6. Do you have any children? 7. When was she born?

4. a) What do you usually have for breakfast? b) What time do you have a break for lunch? c) She never goes to work by car. d) I am sometimes late for work. e) They don’t get up early on Saturday morning.

5. 1. on; 2. -; 3. ; 4. at; 5. at, in; 6. on; 7. on; 8. at; 9. in.

6. a) It’s midday/noon. b) It’s five past one. c) It’s a quarter past two.

D) It’s half past four. e) It’s a quarter to five. f) It’s ten to seven. g) It’s midnight.

7. 1. a; 2. idea; 3. for; 4. do; 5. some; 6. much; 7. kilo; 8. loaf; 9. else;

10. bottle; 11. don’t; 12. What; 13. many; 14. on.

8. catch a bus; come back home; go shopping; have a shower; do housework; drive a car; make breakfast.

Beginners’ 4

1c; 2c; 3a; 4a; 5a; 6d; 7c; 8b; 9a; 10d; 11b; 12b; 13c; 14c; 15c; 16d; 17b; 18 c; 19c; 20 a; 21 a; 22 d; 23 c; 24d; 25d; 26b; 27d; 28d; 29b; 30b; 31a; 32c; 33d; 34d; 35a; 36c; 37b; 38a; 39c; 40b; 41d; 42c; 43d; 44d; 45c; 46a; 47d; 48b; 49c; 50b; 51a; 52a; 53b; 54b; 55c; 56c; 57a; 58d; 59d; 60a.

Final Beginners’

1. 1. am; 2. is; 3. stayed; 4. had; 5. was; 6. decided; 7. are staying; 8. went;

9. saw; 10. visited; 11. took; 12. eat out; 13. be; 14. likes; 15. are going.

2. 1. Where are they? 2. Where did they stay last week? 3. How long did they stay there? 4. Why did they move? 5. Where are they staying now?

6. When did they visit the Aquarium? 7. What did they do yesterday?

8. How often do they eat out? 9. What does Mark like? 10. Where are they going tonight?

4. A) have; b) make; c) take; d) study; e) work; f) do; g) go; h) play; i) ride; j) get.

6. 1. on; 2. Is; 3. Let’s; 4. Why; 5. a; 6. at; 7. many; 8. about; 9. to; 10. to.

7. 1. was he born; 2. does it take; 3. cost; 4. on the thirteenth; 5. Next year;

6. in Green Street; 7. much; 8. am not; 9. are; 10. did you last go.

8. Suggested letter:

Dear Kate,

Hello from Saint-Petersburg! I came here last week. The weather is great.

I am having a fantastic time here! I am staying at the Astoria hotel.

Every morning I go jogging along the streets in the centre of the city. In the afternoon I usually go to the museums or art exhibitions. In the evening I go to the theatres. There are a lot of places to visit.

Last week I went to Tsarskoye Selo. I walked in the parks and took a lot of photos there. And yesterday I went to the Mariinsky theatre. It was so impressive!

At the moment I am having a little break. Tonight I’m going to a party, a friend of mine invited me.

I’m coming back on Sunday. See you.

Love,

Alex

Elementary 1

1. 1. c; 2. c; 3. d; 4. b; 5. e; 6. c; 7. b; 8. b; 9. a; 10. b; 11. c; 12. e; 13. b;

14.e; 15. a; 16. a; 17. d; 18. d; 19. b; 20. c.

2. a) What’s your name? b) Where are you from? c) Where do you live? d) Are you married? e) What’s your wife’s name? f) Do you have any children? g) How old are they? h) What do you do? i) What is your wife? j) How do you spend your free time?

4. a) Where are they from? b) How old is your mother? c) He does not work on Sundays. d) Is it a blue car? e) Where does your father work? f) My wife isn’t a nurse. g) What is your sister’s name? h) What colour is your house? i) I am not very tall. j) What are you good at?

5. 1. name; 2. meet; 3. do; 4. a; 5. do; 6. children; 7. son; 8. like; 9. height;

10. hair; 11. eyes; 12. at; 13. live; 14. at; 15. own; 16. There; 17. Is; 18. in;

19. door; 20. neighbours.

7. 1. yours; 2. cannot speak; 3. rains; 4. does; 5. is; 6. on; 7. do you; 8. What a nice day! 9. sheep; 10. at.

Elementary 2

1. 1. lives; 2. is; 3. doesn’t live; 4. doesn’t like; 5. left; 6. are; 7. don’t go;

8. sees; 9. began; 10. was; 11. had; 12. weren’t; 13. stayed; 14. started;

15. play.

2. 1. When do you get up? 2. What do you have for breakfast? 3. How do you get to work? 4. Why did you take a taxi? 5. How long does it take you to get to work? 6. Where do you work? 7. When do you finish work?

8. What do you do after work? 9. Do you like your job? 10. Would you like to change it?

3. 1. c; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c; 5. e; 6. b; 7. c; 8. d; 9. d; 10. a.

4. 1. Can; 2. half; 3. are; 4. They; 5. Would; 6. cost; 7. per; 8. anything;

9. change; 10. purchase.

5. 1c; 2a; 3j; 4i; 5b; 6d; 7e; 8f; 9g; 10h.

6. 1d; 2i; 3h; 4b; 5c; 6f; 7e; 8a; 9g; 10j.

8. a. a little/some; b. a little/some; c. couldn’t; d. didn’t rain; e. was; f. cost; g. at; h. last Tuesday; i. some; j. beer.

Elementary 3

1. 1. am writing; 2. came; 3. spend; 4. am sitting; 5. is having; 6. came;

7. went; 8. are going; 9. likes; 10. prefer; 11. are coming back; 12. will go;

13. hates; 14. felt; 15. will call.

2. 1. Who is the richest man in the world? 2. What broke?* 3. Who do you live with? 4. Which of you can speak English?* 5. What is the weather like? (*possible questions)

3. 1. h; 2. d; 3. g; 4. j; 5. c; 6. f; 7. e; 8. a; 9. b; 10. i.

4. Possible answers: 1. Moscow is much bigger than SPb; 2. There are fewer people in SPb than in Moscow; 3. SPb is not as old as Moscow; 4. SPb is less expensive than Moscow; 5. Life in SPb is better than in Moscow. 6. SPb is not as noisy as Moscow. 7. Moscow is much more polluted than SPb.

5. 1. the; 2. a, the; 3. a, the; 4. the, a; 5. the, a; 6. —

6. 1. b; 2. a; 3. e; 4. g; 5. h; 6. c; 7. i; 8. f; 9. j; 10. d.

7. 1. at; 2. for; 3. for; 4. by; 5. with; 6. at; 7. on, to; 8. at; 9. along/up/ down.

8. 1. Were you scared; 2. was your city like; 3. Does it often rain; 4. you went; 5. well; 6. leaves; 7. Moscow; 8. a larger; 9. badly; 10. older.

, the; 7.the, the.

Final Elementary

1. 1. have received; 2. asked; 3. are having; 4. am going to make; 5. am;

6. will be; 7. am working; 8. have worked; 9. is; 10. wasn’t easy; 11. left;

12. is; 13. has; 14. is coming; 15. is arriving; 16. will be; 17. Do you want;

18. have you passed; 19. Are you planning; 20. do you get on/are you getting on?

2. 1. How long will it take you to fix dinner? 2. When did you move to SPb?

3. Have you ever driven a car? 4. Why are you late? 5. How often does Tom go to the gym? 6. What is your mother like?

3. 1. a; 2. a; 3. the; 4.

; 5. a; 6. the; 7. a; 8. the; 9. the; 10. the; 11. the;

12. -; 13. the; 14. the; 15. the; 16. the; 17. the; 18. the; 19. the; 20. the.

4. 1. anything; 2. nobody; 3. somewhere; 4. which; 5. mine; 6. much;

7. many; 8. a few; 9. little; 10. a little; 11. few.

5. 1. ages; 2. holiday; 3. staying; 4. the; 5. visited; 6. far; 7. not; 8. ar­rived; 9. ago; 10. would.

6. 1. to, on; 2. to, on; 3. past, between/opposite; 4. on; 5. for; 6. for.

7. a) taller; b) worse; c) old; d) more expensive; e) the tastiest; f) the farthest; g) less, better.

8. a) You should sleep more; b) You mustn’t play with matches; c) Does he have to get up early? d) We might go to Turkey; e) Can she make pies? f) He is rich. He doesn’t have to work.

9. 1. Is he; 2. does; 3. There are a lot of people^; 4. any; 5. were; 6. I don’t like this book very much; 7. first; 8. smaller; 9. well; 10. them.

Pre-Intermediate 1

1. 1. am writing; 2. received; 3. is; 4. are having; 5. came; 6. spend; 7. have been; 8. haven’t seen; 9. were climbing; 10. was shining; 11. was blowing; 12. are coming; 13. will go; 14. will call.

2. 1. How many rooms are there in your flat? 2. What did you buy? 3. Do you like playing football? 4. Have you ever flown by plane? 5. Why will you go there? 6. How long does it take you to relax after work? 7. What nationality are you?

3. 1. are; 2. thank; 3. name; 4. am; 5. were; 6. was; 7. leave; 8. ago; 9. did;

10.that; 11. as; 12. do; 13. is; 14. got; 15. have; 16. am; 17. any; 18. a;

19.will; 20. in.

4. 1. the smartest; 2. worse; 3. modern; 4. faster; 5. expensive; 6. the most delicious; 7. fewer; 8. farthest; 9. harder, better.

5. 1. anything; 2. nobody; 3. somewhere; 4. some, any; 5. Which; 6. yours;

7. much; 8. a lot of; 9. many; 10. much; 11. a few; 12. little; 13. a little;

14. few.

6. 1. d; 2. o; 3. i; 4. b; 5. a; 6. l; 7. e; 8. k; 9. c; 10. n; 11. f; 12. j; 13. g;

14. m; 15. h.

7. 1. per; 2. out of; 3. in, by; 4. back; 5. for; 6. at; 7. on; 8. on.

8. 1. are you; 2. takes; 3. does; 4. much; 5. don’t have; 6. third; 7. were stolen; 8. loaves; 9. Bill and Jill’s; 10. will open.

Pre-Intermediate 2

1. 1. am writing; 2. have; 3. have just bought; 4. are going; 5. haven’t been; 6. are leaving; 7. am; 8. will have; 9. hates; 10. was flying; 11. was suffering; 12. have never been; 13. am looking; 14. come; 15. will write.

2. 1. How long does it take you to get to work? 2. Why did you move here?

3. Do you know him? 4. Have you ever been to Italy? 5. When are you getting married?

3. a) doesn’t she; b) can he; c) have they; d) didn’t you; e) wasn’t it.

4. a) little; b) a few; c) a little; d) a few; e) few.

5. 1. the; 2. the; 3. the; 4. the; 5. a; 6. -; 7. -; 8. the; 9. the; 10. a.

6. 1. The staff has/have just been informed; 2. The jeans are being washed;

3. A bottle of champagne will be bought; 4. It must be done^; 5. The homework was being done^; 6. This company has opened a new chain of restaurants; 7. Nobody has lived in this house for.„; 8. I found the ring^

9. Granny wakes the kids up_; 10. You should drink this mixture^

7. 1. let’s; 2. idea; 3. need; 4. will/can; 5. make; 6. run; 7. much; 8. any;

9. some; 10. little/no; 11. left; 12. some; 13. few; 14. both; 15. much;

16. note; 17. enough.

8. 1. suffers from; 2. treated for; 3. apply to; 4. taken to; 5. operated on;

6. gargle with; 7. aching over; 8. walking on; 9. went down; 10. treatment of.

9. 1b; 2h; 3f; 4j; 5i; 6c; 7m; 8a; 9d; 10e; 11k; 12l; 13g.

10. 1. was she born; 2. been to; 3. the; 4. are there; 5. has he; 6. I didn’t like this film very much; 7. I’d like to go; 8. does it take you; 9. does it cost;

10. is.

Pre-Intermediate 3

1. 1. am writing; 2. has been raining; 3. rains; 4. has rained; 5. came; 6. am staying; 7. stayed; 8. sends/sent; 9. will rent/would rent; 10. have met;

11. came; 12. are studying; 13. have lived; 14. don’t all speak; 15. am having;

16. am; 17. won’t have; 18. have picked up; 19. have; 20. am forgetting.

2. a) Does it often rain in SPb? b) Has it stopped raining? c) How often do you go to the dentist? d) How long did it take you to get to the place?

E) How much did it cost you?

3. a) boring; b) embarrassed; c) safe; d) angrily; e) high; f) hard; g) hardly; h) fast; i) lately; j) well.

4. 1. The police have just been called; 2. The stairs are being done at the moment; 3. 5 exams will be taken; 4. It must be drunk immediately;

5. Dinner was being cooked from 6 to 7; 6. They are building a new school in the area; 7. Nobody has visited this place for a long time; 8. I left the glasses on the windowsill; 9. Granny meets the kids from school; 10. You should take this medicine twice a day.

5. 1. the; 2. the; 3. -; 4. the; 5. -; 6. -; 7. -; 8. the; 9. the; 10. a; 11. a;

12. the; 13. the; 14. the; 15. -; 16. the; 17. -; 18. -; 19. -; 20. -.

6. 1. in; 2. at; 3. as/while/when; 4. on; 5. into; 6. who; 7. both.

7. Jane said she worked as a sales manager.

She wasn’t working at that moment as she was on holiday.

She (had) got that place a year before.

She had never been abroad.

If she got promotion she would go to France.

8. 1. c; 2. b; 3. b; 4. b; 5. c.

9. 1m; 2h; 3k; 4j; 5g; 6b; 7c; 8f; 9e; 10l; 11i; 12d; 13a.

10. a) put it; b) had; c) at; d) it last snowed; e) don’t they; f) those; g) shall we; h) I have wanted; i) the other; j) don’t.

Final Pre-Intermediate

1. Am writing; 2. have been staying; 3. have worked; 4. arrived; 5. had stayed; 6. was robbed; 7. was looking; 8. move; 9. looked; 10. had taken;

11. am staying; 12. lives; 13. has offered; 14. is being redecorated; 15. am; 16. will be; 17. have already arranged; 18. am moving; 19. to come;

20. make up; 21. come/came; 22. will have/would have.

2. 1. doing; 2. speak; 3. interested; 4. looking; 5. hear; 6. later; 7. boring;

8. safe; 9. well; 10. little; 11. few; 12. some; 13. another.

3. 1. the; 2. the; 3. the; 4. -; 5. -; 6. a; 7. -; 8. the; 9.

; 10. a; 11. -;

12. the; 13. the; 14. -; 15. a; 16. a; 17. -; 18. The; 19. -; 20. -.

4. 1. help; 2. looking; 3. would; 4. some; 5. colour; 6. try; 7. fit; 8. size;

9. about; 10. suit.

5. A) The lecturer wasn’t listened to; b) John is always being laughed at;

C) Has this room been slept in lately? d) Their grandmother will be taken care of; e) Many houses are built every year.

6. 1. from; 2. for; 3. from; 4. back; 5. in; 6. on; 7. on; 8. into/for; 9. around;

10. on.

7. A) She begged not to make her cry; b) My friend asked me where I had been; c) The hostess asked if we (had) slept well; d) The teacher said kangaroos live in Australia; e) Dad promised to pick her up after school;

F) He asked to open the door; g) She said she was not going to pay for it/ She refused to pay for it.

8. 1. You should sleep more; 2. You mustn’t offend girls; 3. Does she have to look after her younger brother? 4. The concert is to begin at seven; 5. He might become a doctor. 6. Can your wife knit? 7. He has a car, he doesn’t have to use public transport; 8. It must be the director.

9. A) I don’t have to get up; b) much cheaper; c) I would certainly marry;

D) It was; e) such an; f) If it rains; g) will you; h) used; i) who; j) did you say?

Intermediate 1

1. 1. was flying; 2. dropped; 3. told; 4. would learn; 5. is; 6. will find out;

7. get; 8. arrived; 9. have been staying; 10. have visited; 11. am enjoying; 12. have been swimming; 13. arrived; 14. suggested; 15. came; 16. saw;

17. remember; 18. had had; 19. is; 20 waved.

2. A) used to spend; b) never used to mind; c) am used to hearing; d) was driving; e) used to drive; f) am used to driving; g) am not used to working; h) was waiting; i) used to be; j) is used to being told.

3. A) I’ve read both books. The first one is much more interesting than the other; b) Boss wanted to see you for further instructions; c) Last winter wasn’t as cold as this one; d) The more rarely you speak a foreign language, the more quickly you forget it; e) It’s the funniest film I’ve ever seen; f) This flat is too big for me, I’d prefer something smaller; g) My brother is ten years younger than me/My brother is ten years my junior.

4. A) is; b) were; c) have arrested; d) is made; e) are not; f) was stolen; g) is; h) wasn’t; i) don’fit; j) are.

5. A) the, -; b) the, the; c) -, the; d) the, the, -; e) -.

6. A) She was made to leave her job; b) I saw Jack come into the chief’s room and heard them arguing loudly about something; c) I can’t make him give up smoking; d) I heard he moved to another city; e) I’d like you to spend this weekend with us; f) I felt somebody watching me; g) He came into the room and saw somebody had been there in his absence; h) He told me to do that work again/He had me do that work again.

7. A) less, fewer; b) a little; c) few; d) little; e) a few.

8. A) for, for, in; b) in, in, on; c) -, in, for; d) for, for, in; e) in, for, at.

9. A) We were amazed; b) It was a tiring journey; c) Sylvia was upset;

D) The experience was upsetting; e) Gloria was enchanting; f) Gloria was enchanted; g) The children were delightful; h) We were delighted; i) The new building is impressive; j) Everybody is impressed.

Intermediate 2

1. 1. have come; 2. have you been; 3. went; 4. is it raining; 5. is; 6. has stopped; 7. is blowing; 8. met; 9. do you know; 10. have known; 11. were; 12. haven’t seen; 13. did you meet; 14. does she look; 15. is she getting on;

16. has changed; 17. was going; 18. met; 19. told; 20. had returned; 21. is seeing; 22. will come; 23. hope; 24. will be; 25. am sure.

2. a) Look! Ann is so upset. She is going/about to cry; b) I don’t know what I’ll do after school. I might start my own business; c) I’m sure he won’t come today; d) When are you going to pay me back? e) I wonder if he’ll pass the exam and what grade will get if he passes; f) If he’s working when I come, don’t disturb him, I’ll wait; g) This weekend he is taking part in a very important competition.

3. a) She asked if I thought it was right; b) He said Bill wanted to know if I was (we were) free the next day; c) He asked Bert when all that was/had been decided; d) Mother told the children not to eat^; e) The teacher asked where the Mississippi flows.

4. a) 3; b) 4; c) 1; d) 2; e) 4.

5. a) Tornadoes destroy a great deal of property^; b) The company has ordered some new equipment; c) You need to take the garbage out; d) I’ll will have fed and washed the child^; e) Have you informed him?

6. a) When I was swimming, all my clothes were stolen; b) Has the crim­inal been caught yet? c) Two new buildings are being built in our area; d) This picture isn’t going to be sold; e) Little children should be looked after/kept an eye on every minute.

7. a) Who did they invite? b) How far is NY from London? c) How often does Derek take a bus? d) What has happened? e) How long did it take Lucy to write a composition?

8. a) haven’t you? b) are you? c) aren’t I? d) can you? e) is there? f) does it? g) haven’t they?

9. a) annoyed; b) terrific; c) highly; d) hard, exhausted; e) hardly; f) so, well.

10. a) on; b) forward to, in; c) in, at; d) at; e) at, in, off; f) on; g) at, of.

11. a) Neither my mother nor my sister like^; b) didn’t you?; c) was bad; d) needs cutting; e) didn’t let George fall^; f) If I had^; g) If he loses^; h) is always forgetting; i) where is the other? j) a piece of advice.

Intermediate 3

1. 1. have you been; 2. have you been doing; 3. studied/was studying;

4. Seems; 5. gave; 6. was talked into; 7. said; 8. would give; 9. did; 10. was your first jump; 11. did; 12. had been instructed; 13. was standing; 14. was being encouraged; 15. jumped; 16. have you ever been injured; 17. have you ever thought; 18. am getting; 19. (have) promised; 20. will stop.

2. 1. B; 2. C; 3. D; 4. A; 5. B; 6. C; 7. D; 8. B; 9. D; 10. A.

3. 1. on/surfing; 2. among/from;

3. most; 4. seemed; 5. common; 6. at;

11. were/arranged/decided; 12. once;

7. could; 8. what; 9. at; 10. off;

13. never; 14. off; 15. touch.

4. 1. independence; 2. spoiled;

3. greedy; 4. taught; 5. behaviour;

6 effective; 7. pride; 8. respectful; 9. beliefs; 10. different.

5. 1. I am not used to asking twice; 2. Mary used to have long hair; 3. Your brother isn’t as old as you; 4. There were fewer students in the afternoon;

5. Moscow is the farthest place I have ever been to; 6. The plane is due to arrive at 7; 7. The film is about to start; 8. I’m not likely to come to the party; 9. As soon as I get there, I will phone you; 10. They are said to be living together; 11. He seems to have changed his mind; 12. It is he who you need; 13. I do believe^; 14. I wish I were^; 15. I wish you would stop^

6. 1. When are you going to have it? 2. Will it suit you? 3. Who are you going to invite? 4. Are you going to be alone/Are you coming alone? 5. Do you know her? 6. What is she like/What does she look like? 7. shall I bring anything? 8. Is it really necessary/Do I really have to wear one? 9. When are we going to finish? 10. Can I help you with anything?

7. A) I didn’t understand; b) is the news; c) has; d) impressive; e) hardly ever; f) to rain; g) older; h) visiting; i) to have come; j) once in a blue moon.

Intermediate 4

1.1. You have seen; 2. is; 3. have been; 4. have been working; 5. arrived; 6. had stayed; 7. was robbed; 8. was looking; 9. move; 10. had taken; 11. had been; 12. wouldn’t have happened; 13. am living; 14. living; 15. has offered; 16. is being decorated; 17. will be; 18. have arranged; 19. am moving; 20. are going; 21. didn’t have to work; 22. would go; 23. to come; 24. come (came); 25. will have (would have).

2. 1. — ; 2. the; 3. — ; 4. — ; 5. the; 6. the; 7. a; 8. the; 9. the; 10. -; 11. the;

12.the; 13. the; 14. — ; 15. a.

3. 1. for; 2. at; 3. on; 4. on; 5. back; 6. in; 7. to; 8. on; 9. by; 10. at.

4. 1. Barry’s mother refused to give him any ice-cream until he had eaten his dinner; 2. Sean apologized for having broken/breaking the window; 3. Tom offered to carry the box; 4. My friend advised me to tell my parents the truth;

5. Maurice promised to feed the cat; 6. ‘Where are you going on holiday?’

7. ‘Could you lend me some money?’ 8. ‘I’ve got a headache.’ 9. ‘I’ve been living in London all my life.’ 10. ‘Keep your hands in the air!’

5. 1. to love; 2. visiting; 3. to end; 4. going; 5. to catch; 6. splashing; 7. swimming; 8. baking; 9. eat; 10. to pick me up.

6. 1. was robbed; 2. are looking for; 3. were cut; 4. broke into; 5. was helped;

6. Was stolen; 7. is being searched; 8. is believed; 9. has; 10. is asked.

7. A) Andrew was to meet Mike at lunch the next day; b) She shouldn’t have got up, this walk can/might completely undermine her health; c) Alice must have come; we should hurry to meet her; d) Can he have been working since morning? e) She can’t have married him!

8. A) But for his stubbornness, he would have taken your help even then; b) It wouldn’t have happened if you had been there; c) If I had a good dictionary, I would spend less time on translations; d) In summer we will/ are going to Italy if we have enough money; e) I wish you had come earlier; f) I wish someone would help me! g) if I had had a choice then, I wouldn’t be working for this company now; h) If he loved you, he would not have missed the date.

9. 1. d; 2. b; 3. c; 4. d; 5. c.

Intermediate 5

1. 1. is raining; 2. am sitting; 3. rains; 4. remember; 5. met; 6. had been raining; 7. will get; 8. go out; 9. to take; 10. would fetch; 11. was raining; 12. went; 13. sat; 14. had taken; 15. fetched; 16. went; 17. had met;

18.was riding; 19. have had; 20 haven’t.

2. 1. the; 2. a; 3. -; 4. the; 5. a; 6. a; 7. a; 8. the; 9.

; 10. the; 11. the;

12. -; 13. the; 14. -; 15. -.

3. 1. for; 2. in; 3. by; 4. on; 5. at; 6. in; 7. to; 8. on; 9. through; 10. in;

11. to; 12. for; 13. on; 14. at; 15. up.

4. 1. $2mln was stolen^; 2. A new car model has been designed^; 3. My children are being looked after^; 4. The funeral is going to be held^; 5. Washing machines ^ can be bought^; 6. The operation was to be on^/They were to operate her on^;

7. They are opening the case^; 8. Smb must have stolen my wallet^; 9. We’ll never explain the origin^; 10. You have to sign^

5. a) Can all you money have been stolen? You should have been more careful; b) The concert was to have been on Friday, but we had to put it off because of the rain; c) You shouldn’t eat so much, you can/may put on weight; d) You must have failed to hear that you must do it right now!

E) He might have been held up by some urgent work and couldn’t come.

6. a) But for your help, we would have never solved this problem; b) If it rains, we’ll stay in; c) We wouldn’t have missed the train if we’d taken a taxi; d) If I were you, I would do more sport; e) If I had finished this work yesterday, I would be sunbathing on the beach today; f) If you were not so lazy, you would do well at school; g) I wish the party hadn’t been so boring;

H) I wish you would mind your own business.

7. 1. She offered me a cup of tea; 2. She begged him not to make her cry;

3. They wrote they were coming the next day; 4. Jim suggested going out; 5. She wondered what he was looking for; 6. ‘What shall I do with these letters?’ 7. ‘You shouldn’t go on holiday to such a hot place.’ 8. ‘Do you like Italian food?’ 9. ‘You’ll get fat if you go on like this.’ 10. ‘We’ve opened a chain of new restaurants recently.’

8. a) whose; b) fewer; c) none; d) depressing; e) high; f) shall we? g) neither; h) to buy; i) tells; j) take; k) the smartest; l) lain.

Final Intermediate

1. 1. is known; 2. set; 3. did; 4. had reached; 5. managed; 6. to jet-boat;

7. would have been; 8. hadn’t helped; 9. was built; 10. will have finished;

11. is planning; 12. is; 13. is used; 14. risking; 15. doesn’t look; 16. were not; 17. wouldn’t have achieved; 18. have achieved; 19. had; 20. to live.

2. A2; B3; C4; D1; E3; F2; G3; H1; I3; J2; K4; L1; M2; N4; O4.

3. A) is being raised for; b) have been stolen; c) were being cleaned for two; d) must have been.

4. 1. boredom; 2. behaviour; 3. suddenly; 4. disturbance; 5. nervously;

6. amazement; 7. undoubtedly; 8. burglar; 9. expecting; 10. interruption;

11. frightened.

5. 1. ‘I want a record I heard on the radio this morning.’ 2. ‘I don’t remember it, but I will if I hear it.’ 3. ‘It will take a very long time to play even a little of each record we have.’ 4. ‘Could you hum it?’ 5. ‘I can’t even sing ‘God save the Queen!’ in tune.’ 6. ‘ Oh! It comes from a play in which a woman speaks very badly but finally learns to speak beautifully.’ 7. ‘Is it from ‘My fair lady’?’ 8. ‘Oh, yes, it is. I wish you had thought of it earlier. You must be new to your job.’

6. J, f, i, a, e, k, d, h, c, g, b.

7. 1. more; 2. correct; 3. had; 4. about; 5. it; 6. be; 7. correct; 8. being;

9. correct; 10. the; 11. correct; 12. must; 13. ever; 14. out; 16. were;

17. correct.

Upper-Intermediate 1

1. 1. was; 2. shows; 3. was; 4. lived; 5. studied/was studying; 6. fell; 7. was sent for; 8. pay; 9. (had) prescribed; 10. thought; 11. would; 12. had been teaching; 13. learn; 14. will attract; 15. will be able; 16. did; 17. was looking; 18. saw; 19. was written; 20. was staying; 21. learned; 22. had told; 23. would tell; 24. had never been; 25 went; 26. told; 27. to play; 28. tell; 29. am; 30. have given.

2. a) are you going; b) will give; c) it’s going to rain; d) are you doing, is coming, am going to show; e) get, will lose; f) will recover; g) starts.

3. a) have bought; b) has stopped; c) had been; d) got, had passed; e) did you see, haven’t seen; f) have you been doing, saw; g) had changed.

4. a) He was offered a good job but he refused; b) The most important news is printed in morning papers; c) Are the things already packed? — Yes, the suitcases are already packed/have already been packed, and the bag is being packed; d) I wonder what language he was taught in his childhood;

E) This question can be put off till the next meeting.

5. a) stop; b) making; c) have; d) to tell; e) say; f) being baked; g) to getting up; h) laughing; i) to learn; j) going.

6. a) Ted was asked why he wanted to take the job everyone else was refusing to do; b) She said she could hardly recognize Nick as he had changed a lot for the past years; c) The sign said you are not allowed to make fire in the forest;

D) At the police station I was asked to tell everything I knew about that man;

E) Harry promised me to send a telegram as soon as he got to the place.

7. a) at; b) by, of/about; c) at, in; d) to, on; e) out, on; f) for.

8. a) put it in the bank; b) The Mississippi^; c) They arrived at_; d) ^ when it last snowed; e) doesn’t he; f) Those women^; g) shall we; h) I have always wanted^; i) the other is in the kitchen; j) took little interest.

Upper-Intermediate 2

1. 1. are staying; 2. were; 3. had; 4. enjoyed; 5. have; 6. have been having; 7. arrived; 8. got; 9. has had to; 10. has met; 11. are getting; 12. went;

13. are going; 14. have been spending; 15. are going; 16. are having;

17. am looking/look; 18. will give; 19. get; 20 will see.

2. a) lying; b) lied; c) lay; d) laid; e) wound; f) wounded; g) founded; h) found; i) flown; j) flowed.

3. 1. ‘Did you have a nice trip?’ 2. ‘How long did it take you?..’ 3. ‘Was it snowing?..’ 4. ‘How old are you?’ 5. ‘Where were you born?’ 6. ‘How long have you lived?..’ 7. ‘How long have you worked?..’ 8. ‘What do you like most about?..’ 9. ‘Who told you?..’ 10. ‘How much would you like to be paid?’

4. a) He must have taken a lot of photos at the seaside; b) I can’t find my bag anywhere.

You might have left it in the shop; c) Can your parents

Have disliked this pretty girl? d) She can’t be still going out with Jim; e) I feel awful! I shouldn’t have been walking with you for so long yesterday!

5. a) staying; b) seeing; c) speaking; d) coughing, drinking; e) making;

F) being asked; g) buying; h) working; i) to bring.

6. a) Don’t worry. If I lose this book, I’ll buy a new one; b) Even if you had called me yesterday, I wouldn’t have been able to come; c) But for my sore throat, I would have (had) a swim too; d) If I were you, I would go earlier; e) If he wasn’t so absent-minded, he wouldn’t have forgotten about our meeting; f) If you had entered university last year, you would be a second year student now; g) If it was all the same to me, I wouldn’t be here now; h) I wish we had more time; i) We wished we had followed his advice; j) She is not sure if he will come on a date, but if he comes she will forgive him.

7. a) from; b) for; c) from; d) on; e) with/in; f) of; g) on; h) in; i) to; j) for.

; 5. a; 6. the; 7. the; 8. the; 9.

8. 1. -; 2. a; 3. a; 4. -; 5. a; 6. the; 7. the; 8. the; 9. -; 10. the; 11. the;

12. -; 13. -.

9. a) make; b) done; c) do; d) do; e) do; f) make; g) are doing.

Upper-Intermediate 3

1. 1. won; 2. had been; 3. living; 4. were trying; 5. to make; 6. cut off;

7. hadn’t paid; 8. saying; 9. had won; 10. was; 11. had never dealt;

12. were settled up; 13. bought; 14. were visited; 15. putting; 16. had gone;

17. had lost; 18. be found; 19. has nearly; 20. are trying; 21. are not looking; 22. want; 23. just don’t know; 24. had been; 25. would live/be living.

2. 1. Would you mind me/my borrowing the video? 2. He advised her to go^ 3. She has been playing volleyball for^; 4. I used to spends 5. I am looking forward to^ 6. I am fed up with his bad behaviour. 7. I regret telling her^8. We run out of shampoo. 9. He was too tired to drive^ 10. It takes me twenty minutes to get to work.

3. 1. If you had woken me up, I wouldn’t be late for my appointment. 2. If she were well-qualified, she would have got the job. 3. If she had taken her umbrella, she wouldn’t have got wet. 4. If I knew them well, I would go to the party. 5. He would be at the lecture if he had been told about it.

3.1. Possible answers: 6. If you work hard you’ll succeed. 7. If I won a lot of money, I would buy a villa. 8. But for your help I wouldn’t have solved the problem. 9. If they had been more careful, they wouldn’t be in trouble now. 10. I would have told you earlier if I had met you.

4. A) Nor/Neither do I. b) So is he. c) Nor/Neither did we. d) So am I. e) Nor/Neither do I. f) haven’t they? g) will you? h) aren’t I? i) shall we? j) do they?

5. 1. During; 2. most; 3. in; 4. On; 5. own; 6. no; 7. up; 8. more; 9. demand;

10. few; 11. In; 12. made; 13. the; 14. In; 15. did; 16. from; 17. death.

6. 1. treatment; 2. different; 3. infections; 4. various; 5. healthier;

6. meditative; 7. suitable; 8. corrective; 9. straightening; 10. rebuilding.

7. 1. was; 2, to; 3. like; 4. own; 5. being; 6. correct; 7. it; 8. correct;

9. had; 10. was; 11. the; 12. many; 13. of; 14. correct; 15. correct; 16. to; 17. correct; 18. been.

Upper-Intermediate 4

1. 1. has met; 2. met; 3. was; 4. to suspect; 5. be telling; 6. lives; 7. has ever gone out; 8. was surprised; 9. had been dancing and chatting; 10. listen to;

11.having looked; 12. was; 13. would notice; 14. think; 15. have got.

2. 1. are to meet/are meeting; 2. starts; 3. is unlikely to pass/isn’t going to pass; 4. are you going to do; 5. might; 6. will meet; 7. comes; 8. will be;

9. will have lived; 10. is about to start; 11. will be putting; 12. is due to.

3. 1. the; 2. the; 3. the; 4. the; 5. a; 6. -; 7. -; 8. the; 9. the; 10. a.

4. 1. Paul boasted about being the fastest runner/he was the fastest runner;

2. She promised to phone him every week while she was away; 3. Mum reminded me to water^ 4. She invited him to her party; 5. She begged him to help her; 6. ‘I want to speak to my lawyer.’ 7. ‘I haven’t damaged the car.’ 8. ‘What are you doing at the weekend?’ 9. ‘You should see a professional.’ 10. ‘The children are always disturbing me!’

5. 1. to; 2. in; 3. for; 4. down; 5. with; 6. for; 7. to; 8. off; 9. at; 10. into.

6. a) to help; b) getting; c) selling; d) stealing/having stolen; e) to have been working; f) wait; g) to employ; h) to be offered; i) to have been kidnapped; j) being knocked down.

7. 1. The children are going to be told a story; 2. I don’t like being laughed at; 3. Money is being raised^; 4. He was made to confess^; 5. She is known to be^; 6. He likes people giving him presents; 7. You must pay the bill^;

8. The company has published many interesting books^; 9. Jack must have sent this letter; 10. She has no love of insects as bees stung her.

8. a) You should have talked to her. She might have helped you. Now you’ll have to get out on your own.

B) He can’t be working for this company. You must have been lied to.

C) He was to become a military man as all the men in his family had been in the army.

D) You mustn’t speak/are not allowed to speak to prisoners in a foreign language.

E) Can no one have noticed him leave the room?

9. a) If only I knew the answer to this question! b) I’ll lend you some money only if you pay me back in two weeks’ time; c) If I were you, I would surrender to cops; d) I wish he would stop giving me so much work! e) I wish I had prepared for the exam; f) If ‘The Titanic’ hadn’t collided with the iceberg, it wouldn’t have sunk; g) Kids! It’s time you went to bed/to go to bed! h) If he had proposed to me then, we would be together now;

I) If you were a bit brighter, you wouldn’t have been gadding about with anyone yesterday; j) We’d better cut down our expenses, then we will have enough for the summer holiday.

10. 1. b; 2.c; 3. d; 4. b; 5. d.

Upper-Intermediate 5

1. 1.have gone; 2.am sitting; 3.have been; 4.have ever been asked; 5.am not finding; 6.is being; 7.go; 8.to do; 9.do; 10.wants; 11.to come; 12.came;

13. had had; 14.sitting; 15.are; 16.haven’t been; 17. is sitting; 18.has been sleeping; 19.has been; 20.have had

2. a) A lot of money is owed to the bank; b) Have the stairs been cleaned yet? c) News is being broadcast; d) My clothes were stolen^; e) This house isn’t going to be sold.

3. 1. the; 2. the; 3. -; 4. a; 5. -; 6. the; 7.

; 8. the; 9. the; 10. -; 11. a;

12. the; 13. -; 14. -; 15. a.

4. a) dependent on; b) jealous of; c) terrible at; d) responsible for; e) angry with; f) resigned from; g) operated on; h) belongs to; i) apologizing for;

J) remind me of.

5. a) being questioned; b) helping; c) look; d) to buy; e) sending; f) crying;

G) to write; h) to be chosen; i) lying/having lied; h) to be

6. a) shouldn’t have talked; must have offended; b) can; was to have come; must have forgotten; c) might have to; d) mustn’t; should; e) won’t; might be threatening.

7. a) If I were a painter, I’d paint your portrait; b) I wish he spoke English;

C) If I were not so absent-minded, I wouldn’t have been late for my wedding;

D) I wish the music would stop! e) If you hadn’t been walking for so long yesterday, you’d feel OK today; f) But for her character, they’d have got married long ago; g) I wonder when they’ll come. If they don’t bring me a present, I’ll get offended; h) We wished we had followed his advice; i) He suggested we should go to the cinema; j) If only I had more time!

8. a) He wondered if I liked Italian food; b) She asked Dan how long he’d been learning.„; c) She warned not to enter that room; d) She asked us if T. and D. would be at the party; e) He said kangaroos live in Australia;

F) ‘Let’s go sailing.’/‘Why don’t we go sailing?’ g) ‘Shall I fax the information to them?’ h) ‘Leave me alone!’ i) ‘Have you ever tried sushi?’ j) ‘Let me pay the bill.’

9. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c; 5. a; 6. d; 7. b; 8. b; 9. d; 10. a.

Final Upper-Intermediate

1. 1. was set; 2. being held; 3. is recovering; 4. is being cared; 5. began;

6. was walking; 7. had never walked; 8. rewrite; 9. go; 10. had gone;

11. wouldn’t have happened; 12. have been watching; 13. knew; 14. walked; 15. to drive; 16. saw; 17. bundling; 18. stormed; 19. was kept; 20. had had; 21. were arrested; 22. have been held; 23. have pleaded; 24. have been charged.

2. A2; B3; C4; D2; E1; F4; G3; H1; I2; J3; K1; L4; M2; N2; O3; P2.

3. 1. happily; 2. shocking; 3. experience; 4. investigation; 5. statement;

6. accompanied; 7. burglars’; 8. fingerprints; 9. burglary; 10. guilty.

4. 1. in; 2. into; 3. a; 4. at; 5. by; 6. the; 7. by; 8. in; 9. of; 10. the; 11. at;

12. the; 13. the; 14. it; 15. on; 16. at; 17. a; 18. its.

5. 1. He offered to go shopping; 2. He promised to bring the money he owed the next day; 3. The boss threatened to sack him if he didn’t work harder; 4. She allowed to use her phone whenever he wanted; 5. She begged to come with her; 6. They accused us of vandalizing the school gym; 7. She reminded me to check the papers; 8. Mum warned me to go too near the fire;

9. He apologized for damaging the car; 10. He denied starting the fight;

11. I suggested that we go to Paris; 12. Mary invited me to her party.

6. They must have already come. The train was to arrive at 10.

— If they had come, they would have called. You shouldn’t worry.

— They can’t have been delayed. If you were not so hard-hearted, you would be worried about their being late.

— They might have missed the train or the train might have arrived late.

We should call the station.

— I wish we had gone to the station to meet them.

— If we hadn’t met them, wouldn’t they have come on their own?

— I wish you would stop mocking! If they don’t come, it will be your fault.

— I wonder why.

7. Dear Mr. Jones.

I’m writing In Reply to your advertisement for secretaries. I heard about you from a friend of mine, Jenny Mansfield, Who Worked with you a few years ago in the sales department.

I would be interested in applying for a full-time post. I’m quite experienced in secretarial work and Would have little Difficulty with the duties the current work involves. I think I’m quite skilled at word­processing. I also have wide experience of dealing with clients.

I enclose the reference from my previous Employer And copies of my certificates. I’m available for the interview At Any time that suits you.

Look forward to Hearing From you.

Yours Sincerely, Ann Dale

Advanced 1

1. 1. am writing; 2. is; 3. have been staying; 4. was convinced; 5. is known;

6. thought; 7. would be worth; 8. had climbed; 9. set out; 10. was shining;

11. was not blowing; 12. got; 13. had come across; 14. twisted; 15. was (be­ing) carried; 16. are tackling; 17. is; 18. have got; 19. have been wander­ing; 20. have found; 21. went up; 22. has just been sent; 23. will be saved; 24. will have come back; 25. falls.

2. 1. c; 2. b; 3. b; 4. a; 5. d; 6. d; 7. d; 8. b; 9. b; 10. c; 11. c; 12. d; 13. b;

14.a; 15. d.

A) the; b) -; c) a; d) a; e) the; f) the; g) the; h) the; i) the; j) the; k) the; l) the; m) the; n) the; o) the; p) a; q) the; r) the; s) the; t) the; u) the; v) the; w) the; x) the; y) the; z) a.

3. A) undoubtedly; b) dancers; c) professionally; d) shyness;

E) internationally; f) minority; g) nobility.

1. One; 2. from; 3. what; 4. no; 5. as; 6. did; 7. where; 8. first; 9. managed;

10. made; 11. when; 12. was; 13. from; 14. the; 15. which.

4. 1. Dora boasted she was the most beautiful girl; 2. John complained of having a splitting headache; 3. The boys denied breaking/having broken the window; 4. Missy asked to tell the secret and promised not to tell anyone; 5. The policeman ordered to put his hands up; 6. ‘I’ll call you as soon as I arrive.’ 7. ‘You can’t swim in the river, the water is too cold.’

8. ‘I’ve stolen the car.’ 9. ‘ You shouldn’t go to that place.’ 10. ‘Let’s go to the theatre.’

5. 1. You mustn’t interrupt adults; 2. Can she have been late? 3. A real man ought to know how to use weapons; 4. Why should I believe you? 5. You should have consulted a doctor long ago; 6. He can count money well, he is to become a banker; 7. Every weekend we have to go to my in-laws; 8. We were to have arrived sharp at 5, but our train was late; 9. Shall I make coffee? 10. Granny won’t move house.

6. A) to have been working; b) advice; c) the Czech Republic; d) depressing;

E) a 50-dollar.

Advanced 2

1. 1. were waiting; 2. to be announced; 3. had been; 4. hadn’t waited; 5. was announced; 6. is leaving; 7. are asked; 8. making; 9. being announced;

10. is delayed; 11. is boarded; 12. won’t get/don’t get; 13. will happen;

14. gets; 15. are checked; 16. is allowed; 17. Having waited; 18. hadn’t boarded; 19. was announced; 20. will have been waiting; 21. takes off; 22. had hardly fastened; 23. welcoming; 24. hadn’t been started; 25. were led; 26. had taken off; 27. would have flown/would be flying; 28. have had; 29. fastening; 30. hasn’t been; 31. has it; 32. are we going; 33. will have had; 34. stay; 35. did you say.

2. 1. yourself; 2. in; 3. the; 4. an; 5. the; 6. who; 7. a; 8. down; 9. in; 10. its;

11. the; 12. for; 13. at; 14. with; 15. in.

3. 1. c; 2. d; 3. d; 4. a; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8. a; 9. b; 10. c; 11. d; 12. c; 13. b;

14.b; 15. a.

4. 1. I had said goodbye; 2. stopped talking and started; 3. he could afford;

4. that the soldier clean; 5. you helped; 6. that you send these letters; 7. he were; 8. that he do everything; 9. that she take this medicine.

5. 1. argument; 2. builders; 3. industrial; 4. additional; 5. residents;

8. responsibility;

6. beautiful; 7. unreasonable; 8. responsibility; 9. carefully;

10. importance; 11. possibility.

6. a) But for the toothache, I would have never gone to the dentist; b) It wouldn’t have happened if you had been there; c) If I had a well-paid job, I would have a rest at the seaside; d) If I save up some money, I’ll invest it in shares; e) If I had had a choice then, I wouldn’t be working for this company now; f) If he knew the address, he would have come long ago;

G) They must be sleeping; h) He was holding the door from the other side and wouldn’t let it go; i) He might have already reached Moscow; j) We are not likely to move house in the near future; k) They can’t have been dating for six months; l) Can he have failed the exam? m) The agreement was to have been signed on Friday, but our partners didn’t come; n) Does he have to work hard? o) Should/shall I come in or better wait outside?

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